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Companies use backward and forward scheduling to allocate plant and machinery resources, plan human resources, plan production processes and purchase materials. Production scheduling tools greatly outperform older manual scheduling methods.
These provide the production scheduler with powerful graphical interfaces which can be used to visually optimize real-time work loads in various stages of production, and pattern recognition allows the software to automatically create scheduling opportunities which might not be apparent without this view into the data.
For example, an airline might wish to minimize the number of airport gates required for its aircraft, in order to reduce costs, and scheduling software can allow the planners to see how this can be done, by analyzing time tables, aircraft usage, or the flow of passengers. A key character of scheduling is the productivity, the relation between quantity of inputs and quantity of output.
Key concepts here are:. Production scheduling can take a significant amount of computing power if there are a large number of tasks. Therefore, a range of short-cut algorithms heuristics a. Batch production scheduling is the practice of planning and scheduling of batch manufacturing processes.
Although scheduling may apply to traditionally continuous processes such as refining,   it is especially important for batch processes such as those for pharmaceutical active ingredients, biotechnology processes and many specialty chemical processes.
A batch process can be described in terms of a recipe which comprises a bill of materials and operating instructions which describe how to make the product. The standard provides a procedural hierarchy for a recipe. A recipe may be organized into a series of unit-procedures or major steps. Unit-procedures are organized into operations, and operations may be further organized into phases. The following text-book recipe  illustrates the organization.
A simplified Sstyle procedural organization of the recipe might appear as follows: Note that the organization here is intended to capture the entire process for scheduling. A recipe for process-control purposes may have a more narrow scope. Most of the constraints and restrictions described by Pinedo  are applicable in batch processing. The various operations in a recipe are subject to timing or precedence constraints that describe when they start and or end with respect to each other.
Furthermore, because materials may be perishable or unstable, waiting between successive operations may be limited or impossible. Operation durations may be fixed or they may depend on the durations of other operations. In addition to process equipment, batch process activities may require labor, materials, utilities and extra equipment.
In some simple cases, an analysis of the recipe can reveal the maximum production rate and the rate limiting unit. In the process example above if a number of batches or lots of Product C are to be produced, it is useful to calculate the minimum time between consecutive batch starts cycle-time.
If a batch is allowed to start before the end of the prior batch the minimum cycle-time is given by the following relationship: The unit-procedure with the maximum duration is sometimes referred to as the bottleneck.
This relationship applies when each unit-procedure has a single dedicated equipment unit. If redundant equipment units are available for at least one unit-procedure, the minimum cycle-time becomes: If equipment is reused within a process, the minimum cycle-time becomes more dependent on particular process details. For example, if the drying procedure in the current example is replaced with another reaction in the reactor, the minimum cycle time depends on the operating policy and on the relative durations of other procedures.
In the cases below, an increase in the hold time in the tote can decrease the average minimum cycle time. Various charts are used to help schedulers visually manage schedules and constraints. Since you are operating a bakery, the batch production process looks appealing. In batch production , you focus on producing a set quantity of one product at a time - called a batch. You can produce a batch of blueberry muffins followed by a batch of apple cinnamon muffins.
You can then produce your chocolate chip and bran muffins. If you use batch production, it will be easier to keep your baking process running smooth because you won't have to worry about changing ingredients as much. You also looked into job production as a method of production, but it didn't seem to be a good fit. Job production is all about a variety of products but at a low volume of production. The same tools and similar resources are used, but the products are diverse. For example, a wedding cake company might have a team of bakers working in an assembly line.
However, unlike your muffins, each cake will be different in some way. Some cakes will have two tiers and some will have three or more. Some cakes will be chocolate, some white and some marble. Each cake will be decorated in different ways as well. So, while each baker on the line will have the same job, the details of that job changes from cake to cake.
Unlike making bran muffins, each wedding cake is a separate 'job' unto itself. If you were starting a custom wedding cake business, the job production process might take the cake, but you're mass-producing muffins. You've looked into purchasing a flexible manufacturing system, but don't have the cash to do it right now.
A flexible manufacturing system would allow you to almost completely automate your muffin manufacturing. Flexible manufacturing systems usually increase productivity and reduce costs in the long run. It also leaves the boring part of the job to the machines. You pride yourself on your organic muffins. Since you want to keep the same level of quality when you go national, you are looking into just-in-time production.
When using just-in-time production , you will not need to keep much inventory of muffins beyond what has been ordered by your retailers. This not only keeps your muffins fresh, but your business partner happy, because it also means you won't have a bunch of cash tied up in flour, yeast and blueberries until you need them.
Now, imagine that your factory is built and you've just completed your first year of muffin production. You are meeting with your business partner to discuss costs and revenue. While your business made a profit this year, you both feel that you could make even more money if you can increase the factory's productivity.
Get FREE access for 5 days, just create an account. In order to be more productive, you must figure out a way to increase your muffin output per hour while maintaining their quality and keeping costs to a minimum. Your partner explains to you that productivity is simply how much output you get for your inputs. He even writes down an equation:. He sees that you have a glazed look on your face as you stare at the equation.
He smiles and tells you that all productivity really means is the number of muffins you make given the ingredients and manpower you put into making them. If you make more muffins with the same or less ingredients and man-hours, your factory has increased its muffin making productivity. You realize that there are really two ways to increase productivity. You can either increase output or decrease inputs. Fortunately, productivity is an objective concept that is quantitative - it can be measured.
You perform some research and find numerous factors that affect your muffin production that you can control. Some of these factors include investments in production, technology, equipment and facilities. Productivity is also affected by the economies of scale - the more muffins you produce, the cheaper it costs to produce each muffin because you can buy ingredients in bulk.
Worker training and experience also play an important role. You learn that you can also improve productivity through better work methods, procedures, systems and processes. You and your partner decide to give lean manufacturing a try. Lean manufacturing is an approach to production management where you will try to continuously improve your production process by reducing inventory and streamlining the process. If you can reduce the amount of ingredients you waste, you'll be able to produce the same amount of muffins with fewer ingredients.
And, if you can take out unnecessary steps in the muffin making process, you can produce more muffins per hour. This should help you increase your productivity. Let's review what we've learned. Production consists of a process of turning inputs, such as labor and raw materials, into finished goods or services. Production processes vary and include mass production , batch production , flexible manufacturing and just-in-time-production.
Productivity is how much output you can get out of inputs. In other words, how much of your goods or services you can create with a given amount of raw materials and labor. You can increase productivity if you are able to decrease inputs and maintain the same level of output.
You can also increase productivity if you increase output using the same level of inputs. Lean manufacturing is one way to try to increase productivity.
It involves continuously seeking to improve the production process by keeping inventory to a minimum and streamlining the production process. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study. Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities.
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By creating an account, you agree to Study. Explore over 4, video courses. Find a degree that fits your goals. The Processes of Production and Improving Productivity In this lesson, learn about the different processes businesses use in the production of goods and services in our economy. You'll also learn about the concept of productivity and ways to improve it.
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What Is Process Planning in Management? Frank and Lillian Gilbreth's Motion Study. In this lesson, learn about the different processes businesses use in the production of goods and services in our economy. The Production Process Imagine that you're a small business owner that started a successful bakery several years ago. Mass Production One option is to use mass production to produce your muffins.
Batch Production Since you are operating a bakery, the batch production process looks appealing. Job Production You also looked into job production as a method of production, but it didn't seem to be a good fit.
Flexible Manufacturing System You've looked into purchasing a flexible manufacturing system, but don't have the cash to do it right now. Just-In-Time Production You pride yourself on your organic muffins. Productivity Now, imagine that your factory is built and you've just completed your first year of muffin production. Want to learn more? Select a subject to preview related courses: He even writes down an equation: Lesson Summary Let's review what we've learned.
Learning Outcomes Watching this lesson should help you learn to do the following: Describe several production processes, including mass production, batch production, flexible manufacturing and just-in-time production Define productivity List ways to increase productivity and explain how lean manufacturing relates to increased productivity. Unlock Your Education See for yourself why 30 million people use Study. Become a Member Already a member? Earning College Credit Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities.
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Process (continuous): These operations are analogous to Repetitive; they run 24/7 all the time. The primary difference is that production materials are gases, liquids, powders, or slurries. The primary difference is that production materials are gases, liquids, powders, or slurries. When a manufacturing company begins production of a new material, it has a choice as to the manufacturing process it uses. The type of process depends on the facility, the staff, and the information systems available. The production process was really interesting and had a lot of complexity to it, which I found very cool and I wanted to know more. 18 people found this helpful The production process included the final assembly of the widget as the entire process was performed in house as we did not outsource.